INSTITUTIONS

The History and Archaeology Museum
The History and Archaeology Museum appeared on April 24, 1934, in the presence of members of the Society of History, Archaeology, and Ethnography Mures, with tireless support from Nicolae Iorga, Emil Danda, Aurel Filimon, and Constantin Daicoviciu. At that time, exhibits came from donations of members of the Society or citizens and from archaeological excavations at various sites in the county.

Located on the second floor of the Palace of Culture, the exhibition aims to present the based habitat development on the river Mures. The concept is innovative: in addition to traditional windows, specific historical periods and archaeological cultures, were illustrated on large-scale reconstruction. From a chronologically point of view, the exhibition presents the material and spiritual culture from the first human tools of Stone Age to the end of the age of migrations: home, sanctuary, workshop, cemetery, and kitchen.
The first room of the museum houses prehistorically objects and ornaments. Arrowheads, axes, polished beads, female idols, cult vessels, clay pots, and other objects belonging to the Cris, Petreşti, Cucuteni-Ariuşd, Decea and Coţofeni cultures, represent the Neolithic. On Mures territory are identified 127 sites so far. The first Neolithic settlement was discovered in Gălățeni, dated between 700,000-120,000 BC

The second hall is dedicated to the Bronze Age. Objects of Schnekenberg-Braşov culture, such as knives, stone axes, a bronze ax, metal crucibles, a copper dagger, all illustrate the traces of the Thracian civilization in this area. Are represented bronze pieces from the deposits from Band, Suseni, Chinari Călugăreni, Sângeorgiu de Mures, Jaben, Aluniş, Iara de Jos, all of Mures county and the warehouse from Vurpăr discovered in Alba county. Three burial chambers of that time are reconstructed, one of Scythian origin. Noted are the ceramic vessels of Celtic origin.

In the last room are exhibited objects from the Dacian period, pottery, weapons, jewelry, household items, coins, cups, agricultural tools from the Bronze Age, Hallstatt and Latene periods, in a meaningful argument on the extent and continuity on Mures county.
An adornment remarkable objects is "Fibula from Suseni" discovered in the town that gave its name. Unique in southeastern Europe, it is made in bronze with artistry and finesses, detach by the sharp detail and special equipment of the artisan from the rest of the objects in that site. The artistic value precedes the metal value from which it was forged, which is why the fibula was included on the Mures county emblem and became a symbol of these places.
www.muzeumures.ro


The Museum of Art
In 1913, the town collection was planned to be hosted by the Palace of Culture, pending to the completion of the new edifice of the Art Museum. Today, 100 years after the opening, the collection of paintings delights the visitors in the same space, much richer.

Donations from the state, public acquisitions, donations from artists, private persons or non-profit organizations or businesses, the gallery paintings reached an impressive number of works. If the first permanent fund was 68 canvas paintings at this time the Department of Art Collection includes over 3,000 works. The space that originally served the Free School of Painting and subsequently, School of Art exhibits canvases and sculptures purchased by Mures Community over 100 years. The link revival collection bounds to the names of artists, curators who loved art and community above personal comfort and cozy life. Demeter Róbert was a pioneer, curator between 1913 and 1925 who took the first fund of the gallery paintings, even at the inauguration of the Palace of Culture in 1913. Károly Hajós followed, until 1932, when indefatigable painter Aurel Ciupe took over the administrative post. He was more than an employee, cumulating also the City Professorship at the Free School of Painting. He made countless requests, along with local authorities to achieve growth fund paintings, efforts rewarded with donations made primarily by the artists: Oscar Han, Corneliu Medrea, Serova Medrea, Mihail Onofrei, Marius Bunescu, Ion Jalea, Dimitrie Paciurea, and many others, along with private donations and purchases of other paintings from the Official Salon in Bucharest.

It were purchased works of Romanian artists, the collection being quite poor in this area. Ciupe Aurel wrote in the first catalog published that described this collection that is proud to be the director of the most beautiful museum in Transylvania. At the outbreak of World War II the collection management turned to the Art Museum director in Budapest, Csaky Denes, who withdrew some of the works donated. In 1941, the painter András Bordi is appointed custodian, a position he will hold for 30 years. He revived the artistic life of the city taking the initiative of Aurel Ciupe to transform the pinacotheque into a space education for the Art School students. He also decided to hide the collection of paintings in a room built in the basement of the Palace, disregarding the order that required him to pack up for transport after the war ended. The communist years were dominated by the creation of "custom" paintings and sculptures that illustrate the "socialist man.” Even so, some local anniversary event for the artists allowed the access to genuine art. From the press of the time (1947-1989) we find out that it took place the "regional exhibition in the halls of the Arts Palace of Culture, holding works of the State Prize laureates and Fine Arts Middle School students." Among those who regularly exposed were Izsák Márton, Csorvássy István, Gábor Piskolti, Barabás István, András Bordi, Pataky Etelka, Nemes Irén, and the theme was subsumed under the slogan "the man, the builder of socialism."

After 1989, the Pinacotheque Mures returned to its fundamental and deeply human mission that its initiator, György Bernády fore seeded 100 years ago:
"I see, full of joy, as it will elevate in thought and feeling, will enrich in knowledge and strengthen financially the people status from Targu Mures, following the creations of its artists."

The Hungarian Art Gallery hosts since 2003, the permanent exhibition "Lights and Shadows - color trends in Hungarian painting between 1810 and 1920." The synthesis exhibition is a sketch in broad lines of the Hungarian Art Physiognomy over a century of multitude succeeding effervescence currents as the looming 19th century. From Biedermeier’s manifestations of Miklos Barabas' and Károly Lotz's romantic breath, through the School of Barbizon's landscapes and Paál Munkácsy, Mihály László, continuing with freshness from the School in Baia Mare brought by Károly Ferenczy or Reti István, the visual journey includes the vigor of Vaszary János and strong chiaroscuro custom of Dósa Géza, ending with Wagner Sandor’s monumental expressiveness and Spányi Bela.

The works displayed belong to famous artists, some of them founders of the schools or art movements. We can highlight the masters at the end of the 19th century: Miklós Barabás, Markó Ferenc, Dósa Géza Munkácsy Mihály, and László Paál.
An important place in the exhibition occupies the 20th century Hungarian painters: Vaszary János, István Zichy, Gyula Éder, Kardos Gyula, Ferenc Paczka, and Hugó Poll.

On October 21, 2011 is inaugurated the first Romanian modern art gallery in Targu Mures. By disposing new spaces into the Palace of Culture, part of the 120 works of art, paintings, and sculptures of Romanian artists could be exposed. The works that can be admired belong to some great personalities such as Theodor Aman, Nicolae Grigorescu, Ion Andreescu, Stefan Luchian Gheorghe Petraşcu, Theodor Pallady, Nicolae Tonitza, Dimitrie Paciurea, Nicolae Dărăscu, Ion Ţuculescu, Corneliu Baba, Eugen Gâscă, Ion Vlasiu, and many others.
www.muzeumures.ro


The Mures County Library
In the fall of 1913, with the opening of the Palace of Culture, a whole wing of the edifice becomes a library, serving as a contribution to the cultural and intellectual community. Subsequently, due to increased collections and services development, the space occupied by the Mures County Library inside the Palace of Culture has increased proportionally, reaching over 2,250 m2 today.

Mures County Library experienced - in time - many changes: complete or partial renovations, changes in destination areas already occupied, massive expansion of funds and collections. Although they kept the traditional look, room and furniture arrangement are used even today in some sections, the same as the one performed at the time of the inauguration.

Over the 100 years of activity, Mures County Library has permanently completed its collections of documents - depending on the needs of the community readings – today is the richest fund county library with encyclopedic character. Readers can see an impressive collection of periodicals, old books - Romanian and foreign - current editorial production books, electronic materials, totaling about 1 million documents.

Mures County Library offers the community a wide range of services: study-reading rooms, home loan, references, free internet, and modern computers. In addition, throughout the cultural activities dedicated to the public and published reference books, the library tends to constitute a genuine cultural and editorial center of the community.

In a century of activity, the library received visits from numerous personalities of culture, science - Romanian and universal - who have made their mark on its collective evolution. Traces of their passage is being kept in what is deemed "the culturally identity card of Mures County Library" – The Gold Book.

The Palace of Culture is a generous host for music too. In 1874 at Targu Mures were a circle of chorus and associations of music lovers. The creation of the first orchestra, made up of amateurs and conducted by Végler Gyula (1853-1930), allows its regular symphonic and choral musicians organizations, with guests both form Mures and cities or abroad. In 1908, supported by Mayor Bernády György, is founded a music school having Albert Metz as chief conductor and composer. In 1913, the school moves in to the new Palace of Culture. The edifice project provided a large hall equipped with an organ concert. Albert Metz builds a professional symphony orchestra, made up of schoolteachers of music. An important role for the enrichment of local musical culture has had concerts by big names of European classical music: Pablo Casals, Béla Bartók, Joseph Szigeti, etc.
www.bjmures.ro


The Philharmonic
From 1922, the School of Music in Targu Mures will be elevated to higher education institution with the title of Municipal Conservatory. In 1925, violinist Maximilian Costin becomes director of the Conservatory, which increases the institution by bringing renowned professors at the time: Zeno Vancea, Elsa Goering, Ioan Petrescu, George Ionescu, Olga Vancea-Costin etc. Renowned Constantin Silvestri, Anca Barbu, Alexandru Demetriad, Maria Samson were among Conservatory students. The music education provided by teachers and the orchestrated concerts held on the stage in the Palace of Culture, attracted appreciation, and admiration from famous masters.

The best example is that of George Enescu, the composer returning seven times on the Mures scene between the wars. He was a constant supporter in obtaining the Conservatory funding instruments. Here he met Master Constantin Silvestri, at that time a student of Conservatory Targu Mures. Its characterization, regarding the quality of the studies and music education taught here is enlightening: "I always felt a great pleasure to quote the Targu Mures Conservatory as bringing together only eminent professors. It is unique in its own way." Another great soul confession was occasioned by Enescu Sonata Spring rehearsal on the stage of the Palace of Culture, along with the excellent pianist Árpád László: after a moment of silence at the end of rehearsal, the Master said: "I dreamed this work exactly in this way" giving his partner an alabaster box with dedication in his memory. Due to the excessive costs required for staging the symphonic music (1930-1947), the focus is on chamber music. Through the efforts of a great man, Zeno Vancea, an erudite musician who loved the city, appears the Targu Mures State Philharmonic. Zeno Vancea confessed in a letter: "In the summer of 1926 after graduating from the Vienna Conservatory, I was invited to spend part of the holidays in the city on the banks of Mures. I did not imagine then that I would stay there for 17 years and that those years will be the best years of my life."

Established in 1950 as a symphony orchestra, the Philharmonic enriched in 1956 with a mixed choir and later joins the String Quartet, continuing its work today. With the establishment of the Philharmonic, conductors such as Antonin Ciolan, George Georgescu, Alfred Alessandrescu, Mircea Basarab, Mircea Cristescu, Emil Simon, Erich Bergel, Paolo Olmi, Lawrence Foster, Vaclav Smetacek, Itay Talgam, Tamás Gál, Sergiu Comissiona, Kurt Wöss, Hilarion Ionescu-Galati, Horia Andreescu and a host of valuable soloists such ​​as Daniil Safran, Zoltán Kocsis, Helmuth Platner, Valentin Gheorghiu, Ion Voicu, Miklós Perényi Stefan Ruha, Ranki Dezso, Radu Lupu, Nicholas Herlea, Andras Agoston, Gérard Frémy, Emilia Petrescu, Maria Guzman, Viktor Eresko, Martha Kessler, Radu Aldulescu, Silvia Marcovici, Jandó Jeno, Dan Gregory, Arkadi Sevidov,  they all made a nice presence on the stage of Philharmonic.

An important role in the evolution of the Symphony Orchestra have had permanent conductors Géza Kozma, Remus Georgescu, Szalman Lorant and then Mandeal one of the most famous contemporary Romanian music wand. At the helm of the choir have been refined musicians, such as the conductor Szalman Lorant, with a decisive role in the formation and early years of overall activity, followed by Szarvady Gyula, Fejér Elemér, Birtalan Judit, Dumitru Buzoianu, and Vasile Cazan. It must be mentioned here also the directors’ work at the helm of the institution over its history: Dr. Birek László Antalffy Zsuzsanna, Kovács Dénes, Endre Székely, Matthias Kozma, Zoltán Aladar, Szalman Lorant, Valeriu Maior, Csíky Boldizsár, Botar Gerő and for 16 years until the present, Vasile Cazan. Each brought a significant contribution to raising the artistic requirements, good organization and functioning. During 1950-1989, the need for symphonic music was a party directory. However, the townspeople embraced the Philharmonic and its work, as being a collective space for spiritual enrichment and not ideological. The Philharmonic offers on sale subscriptions for businesses, schools and state institutions, and people come in large numbers to every concert of the ensemble. During this time, the focus is on popularization of the Romanian authors and composers, some propaganda but others of real artistic value.

Madrigal Choir concerts, a world reference in the field, enriches the house every time. Although the politics in that time just promoted the values ​​approved by the State and the Communist Party, there were special people who have supported efforts to keep alive the authentic values. An example is the initiative to engage in various businesses the Philharmonic members to avoid the dissolution of the Philharmonic Choir in 1985-1986, an initiative taken by the first secretary of the County Party Committee, Nicolae Veres. The Philharmonic presents concerts in permanent season at Odorheiu Secuiesc, Sighisoara, and Reghin. The 80s professionalism under the guidance rules of the severe concertmaster Julius Hamza was then consolidated for two decades by the late Alexander Laszlo. Today two talented young concertmasters, Péter Béla and Roxana Oprea, contribute with their enthusiasm to work every day at this prestigious artistic group, much younger and very well prepared.

For nearly two decades the permanent conductor of the Symphony Orchestra is Master Shinya Ozaki of Japan, successfully assisted by the principal guest conductor: Franz Lamprecht from Germany and Myrat Alexandre from France. The story of the famous Japanese conductor is particularly. He is convinced at the insistence of local authorities and Andrei Pleşu, Minister of Culture at the time, to accept the post in 1993. Over time, the relationships between Targu Mures and Japan have become particularly close in symphonic music community in the city due to the efforts coordinated by young Japanese conductor. Thus, in 1998 the Japanese government donated musical instruments, including a harpsichord, worth $ 500,000, creating a collaboration that included new lines every year. Kumamoto-Romania Cultural Association awards two scholarships each year for students of Arts School in Targu Mures. The Targu Mures Philharmonic was invited to take a tour in Japan in 1999 and on the occasion to celebrate its birthday, his Majesty the Emperor of Japan is always invited to a reception given by the Embassy and the Director of Mures Philharmonic. Shinya Ozaki captivated the young audience by his performances on the subject of original music from the movies.

The German conductor Franz Lamprecht is another milestone in the work of the Philharmonic. Working with him, as a guest conductor, has created another important partnership for the city. Together with the German foundation "Chor der Landesregierung Düsseldorf" - a set of three choirs from the region Düsseldorf – the Targu Mures Philharmonic concerts each year in Germany and Targu Mures.
Gratifying is the fact that in 2008 managed the establishment of String Quartet "Tiberius", a State Philharmonic Quartet, which, in addition to the concerts of the season, responds to invitations to events organized by the authorities Protocol County Council, Prefecture, City Hall. Other chamber groups of the Philharmonic beautify the seasons:
The Octet for Woodwinds, The Trombone Ensemble, The Brass Quintet, The Male Vocal Group "Cantuale" and the organist institution Tunde Molnar, supports for 10 years now in the summer, the series "Summer Evenings with organ music", concerts that highlight the organ in the Great Hall of the Palace of Culture and various historic organs from Targu Mures churches.

The four annual festivals: The Targu Mures Music Days, In memoriam Constantin Silvestri, The  Chamber Music Festival and Sacra Music are peak times in every season and the special and extraordinary concert events of the year are added at the weekly concerts that take place every Thursday at 7.00 p.m. On other days, usually Tuesday or Wednesday, chamber or choral concerts take place, the latter being held in other locations in the city: churches, schools, universities, and other institutions.

Since 2012, the institution's management intends besides existing festivals that have a nice tradition to organize every year a new manifestation with exceptional artist. In the spring of 2012, there was a plucked string music festival: mandolin, guitar, lute, and harp. Since in 2013, everyone will be celebrating two titans of the lyric genre: Giuseppe Verdi and Richard Wagner, to celebrate two centuries since their birth. In June the Philharmonic has performed extraordinary concerts with work from their creation.
www.filarmonicams.ro